Kinh Nhất Dạ Hiền Giả

Thứ Hai, 25 Tháng Bảy 20165:38 CH(Xem: 641)
Kinh Nhất Dạ Hiền Giả
KINH NHẤT DẠ HIỀN GỈA
Thích Minh Châu dịch Việt
(Trích trong: Kinh Trung Bộ (Majjhima Nikàya) 131)


Như vầy tôi nghe.


Một thời Thế Tôn ở Savatthi (Xá-vệ), Jetavana (Kỳ-đà lâm), tại tịnh xá ông Anathapindika (Cấp Cô Độc). Ở đấy Thế Tôn gọi các Tỷ-kheo: "Này các Tỷ-kheo". --"Thưa vâng, bạch Thế Tôn". Các vị Tỷ-kheo ấy vâng đáp Thế Tôn. Thế Tôn nói như sau:


-- Này các Tỷ-kheo, Ta sẽ thuyết giảng cho các Ông: 'Nhứt dạ Hiền giả' (Bhaddekaratta), tổng thuyết và biệt thuyết. Hãy nghe và suy nghiệm kỹ, Ta sẽ thuyết giảng.


-- Thưa vâng, bạch Thế Tôn.


Các Tỷ-kheo ấy vâng đáp Thế Tôn. Thế Tôn giảng như sau:
Quá khứ không truy tìm
Tương lai không ước vọng.
Quá khứ đã đoạn tận,
Tương lai lại chưa đến,
Chỉ có pháp hiện tại
Tuệ quán chính ở đây.
Không động, không rung chuyển
Biết vậy, nên tu tập,
Hôm nay nhiệt tâm làm,
Ai biết chết ngày mai?
Không ai điều đình được,
Với đại quân thần chết,
Trú như vậy nhiệt tâm,
Đêm ngày không mệt mỏi,
Xứng gọi Nhứt dạ Hiền,
Bậc an tịnh, trầm lặng.


Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là truy tìm quá khứ? Vị ấy nghĩ: "Như vậy là sắc của tôi trong quá khứ", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Như vậy là thọ của tôi trong quá khứ", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Như vậy là tưởng của tôi trong quá khứ", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Như vậy là hành của tôi trong quá khứ", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy, "Như vậy, là thức của tôi trong quá khứ", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo,là truy tìm quá khứ. Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là không truy tìm quá khứ? Vị ấy nghĩ: "Như vậy là sắc của tôi trong quá khứ", và không truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Như vậy là thọ của tôi trong quá khứ", và không truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Như vậy là tưởng của tôi... Như vậy là hành của tôi... Như vậy là thức của tôi trong quá khứ"; và không truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo,là không truy tìm quá khứ.


Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào ước vọng tương lai? Vị ấy nghĩ: "Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là sắc của tôi trong tương lai", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là thọ của tôi trong tương lai", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Mong rằng như vậy là tưởng của tôi... là hành của tôi... Như vậy là thức của tôi trong tương lai", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là thế nào ước vọng tương lai.


Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là không ước vọng trong tương lai? Vị ấy nghĩ: "Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là sắc của tôi trong tương lai", và không truy tìm hân hoan trong ấy; "Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là thọ của tôi trong tương lai", và không truy tìm hân hoan trong ấy; "Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là tưởng... sẽ là hành... sẽ là thức của tôi trong tương lai, "và không truy tìm hân hoan trong ấy. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo,là ước vọng tương lai.


Và này các Tỷ-kheo, như thế nào là bị lôi cuốn trong các pháp hiện tại? Ở đây, này các Tỷ-kheo, có kẻ vô văn phàm phu không đi đến các bậc Thánh, không thuần thục pháp các bậc Thánh, không tu tập pháp các bậc Thánh; không đi đến các bậc Chân nhân, không thuần thục pháp các bậc Chân nhân, không tu tập pháp các bậc Chân nhân; quán sắc là tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là có sắc, hay quán sắc là trong tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là trong sắc, hay vị ấy quán thọ là tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là có thọ; hay quán thọ là trong tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là trong thọ, hay vị ấy quán tưởng là trong tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là có tưởng, hay vị ấy quán tưởng là tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là có tưởng, hay vị ấy quán hành là tự ngã, hay vị ấy quán tự ngã là có hành, hay vị ấy quán hành là trong tự ngã, hay vị ấy quán tự ngã là trong hành; hay vị ấy quán thức là tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là có thức, hay quán thức là trong tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là trong thức. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là bị lôi cuốn trong các pháp hiện tại.


Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là không bị lôi cuốn trong các pháp hiện tại? Ở đây, này các Tỷ-kheo, có vị Đa văn Thánh đệ tử đi đến các bậc Thánh, thuần thục pháp các bậc Thánh, tu tập pháp các bậc Thánh, đi đến các bậc Chân nhân, thuần thục pháp các bậc Chân nhân, tu tập pháp các bậc Chân nhân. Vị này không quán sắc là tự ngã, không quán tự ngã là có sắc, không quán sắc là trong tự ngã, không quán tự ngã trong sắc; không quán thọ... không quán tưởng... không quán hành... không quán thức là tự ngã, không quán tự ngã là có thức, không quán thức trong tự ngã, không quán tự ngã trong thức. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là không bị lôi cuốn trong các pháp hiện tại.


Quá khứ không truy tìm
Tương lai không ước vọng.
Quá khứ đã đoạn tận,
Tương lai lại chưa đến,
Chỉ có pháp hiện tại
Tuệ quán chính ở đây.
Không động, không rung chuyển
Biết vậy, nên tu tập,
Hôm nay nhiệt tâm làm,
Ai biết chết ngày mai?
Không ai điều đình được,
Với đại quân thần chết,
Trú như vậy nhiệt tâm,
Đêm ngày không mệt mỏi,
Xứng gọi Nhứt dạ Hiền,
Bậc an tịnh, trầm lặng.


Khi ta nói: "Này các Tỷ-kheo, Ta sẽ giảng cho các Ông: 'Nhứt dạ Hiền giả', tổng thuyết và biệt thuyết", chính duyên ở đây mà nói vậy. Thế Tôn thuyết giảng như vậy. Các Tỷ-kheo ấy hoan hỷ, tín thọ lời dạy của Thế Tôn.


Hòa thượng Thích Minh Châu dịch Việt
Trích trong: Kinh Trung Bộ (Majjhima Nikàya) 131

Majjhima Nikaya 131
Bhaddekaratta Sutta An Auspicious Day
Translated by Bhikkhu Thanissaro

Translator's Introduction

The title of this discourse has sparked some controversy, centered on the word "ratta." Modern translators in Asian vernaculars are unanimous in rendering it as "night," a reading seconded by Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the discourse. Translators working in English have balked at this reading, however, on the grounds that the title it yields -- "Auspicious One-Night" -- makes no sense. Thus I.B. Horner drops the word "ratta" for her translation entirely; Ven Ñanamoli renders it as "attachment," yielding "One Fortunate Attachment"; and Ven. Ñanananda, taking his cue from Ven. Ñanamoli, renders it as "lover," yielding "Ideal Lover of Solitude."

If we look at idiomatic Pali usage, though, we find that there is good reason to stick with the traditional reading of "night." There is a tendency in the Pali Canon to speak of a 24-hour period of day and night as a "night." This would be natural for a society that used a lunar calendar -- marking the passage of time by the phases of the moon -- just as it is natural for us, using a solar calendar, to call the same period of time a "day." As the verse that forms the summary of this discourse explicitly mentions one practicing "relentlessly both day and night," the "night" in the title of the discourse would seem to be a 24-hour, rather than a 12-hour, night -- and so I have chosen to render the Pali idiom into its English equivalent: An Auspicious Day.

Ven. Ñanamoli is probably right in assuming that "bhaddekaratta" was a pre-Buddhist term that the Buddha adopted and re-interpreted in light of his own teaching. The point of the discourse would thus be that -- instead of the play of cosmic forces, the stars, or the lucky omens -- one's own development of the mind's attitude to time is what makes a day auspicious.


I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi, at Jetavana, the park of Anathapindika. There he addressed the monks: "Monks!"

"Yes, lord," the monks replied.

The Blessed One said: "Monks, I will teach you the summary and exposition of one who has had an auspicious day. Listen and pay close attention. I will speak."

"As you say, lord," the monks replied.

The Blessed One said:

One would not chase after the past, nor place expectations on the future. What is past is left behind. The future is as yet unreached. Whatever quality is present one clearly sees right there, right there. Unvanquished, unshaken, that's how one develops the mind.

Ardently doing one's duty today, for -- who knows? -- tomorrow death may come. There is no bargaining with Death and his mighty horde.

Whoever lives thus ardently, relentlessly both day and night, has truly had an auspicious day: So says the Peaceful Sage.

"And how, monks, does one chase after the past? One gets carried away with the delight of 'In the past I had such a form (body)'...'In the past I had such a feeling'...'In the past I had such a perception'...'In the past I had such a thought-fabrication"...'In the past I had such a consciousness.' This is called chasing after the past.

"And how does one not chase after the past? One does not get carried away with the delight of 'In the past I had such a form (body)'...'In the past I had such a feeling'...'In the past I had such a perception'...'In the past I had such a thought-fabrication"...'In the past I had such a consciousness.' This is called not chasing after the past.

"And how does one place expectations on the future? One gets carried away with the delight of 'In the future I might have such a form (body)'...'In the future I might have such a feeling'...'In the future I might have such a perception'...'In the future I might have such a thought-fabrication"...'In the future I might have such a consciousness.' This is called placing expectations on the future.

"And how does one not place expectations on the future? One does not get carried away with the delight of 'In the future I might have such a form (body)'...'In the future I might have such a feeling'...'In the future I might have such a perception'...'In the future I might have such a thought-fabrication"...'In the future I might have such a consciousness.' This is called not placing expectations on the future.

"And how is one vanquished with regard to present qualities? There is the case where an uninstructed run-of-the-mill person who has not seen the noble ones, is not versed in the teachings of the noble ones, is not trained in the teachings of the noble ones, sees form as self, or self as possessing form, or form as in self, or self as in form.

"He/she sees feeling as self, or self as possessing feeling, or feeling as in self, or self as in feeling.

"He/she sees perception as self, or self as possessing perception, or perception as in self, or self as in perception.

"He/she sees thought-fabrications as self, or self as possessing thought-fabrications, or thought-fabrications as in self, or self as in thought-fabrications.

"He/she sees consciousness as self, or self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. This is called being vanquished with regard to present qualities.

"And how is one not vanquished with regard to present qualities? There is the case where a noble disciple who has seen the noble ones, is versed in the teachings of the noble ones, is well-trained in the teachings of the noble ones, does not see form as self, or self as possessing form, or form as in self, or self as in form.

"He/she does not see feeling as self, or self as possessing feeling, or feeling as in self, or self as in feeling.

"He/she does not see perception as self, or self as possessing perception, or perception as in self, or self as in perception.

"He/she does not see thought-fabrications as self, or self as possessing thought-fabrications, or thought-fabrications as in self, or self as in thought-fabrications.

"He/she does not see consciousness as self, or self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. This is called not being vanquished with regard to present qualities.

One would not chase after the past, nor place expectations on the future. What is past is left behind. The future is as yet unreached. Whatever quality is present one clearly sees right there, right there. Unvanquished, unshaken, that's how one develops the mind.

Ardently doing one's duty today, for -- who knows? -- tomorrow death may come. There is no bargaining with Death and his mighty horde.

Whoever lives thus ardently, relentlessly both day and night, has truly had an auspicious day: So says the Peaceful Sage.

"'Monks, I will teach you the summary and exposition of one who has had an auspicious day.' Thus it was said, and in reference to this was it said."

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words.


 

Bhaddekaratta Sutta:
The Discourse on the Ideal Lover of Solitude
translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Ñanananda
© 2005–2010 Alternate translation: Thanissaro

Editor's note: An extensive discussion of this sutta may be found in Ideal Solitude: An Exposition on the Bhaddekaratta Sutta by the translator.

Thus have I heard: At one time the Exalted one was living at Saavatthi in the Jeta Grove, Anaathapi.n.dika's monastery. There he addressed the monks thus: "Monks." "Revered one," the monks answered the Exalted One in assent. The Exalted one spoke thus "Monks, I shall preach to you the summary and the exposition of the Ideal Lover of Solitude. Listen and give attention. I shall speak." "Even so, revered sir," the monks answered the Exalted One in assent. The Exalted One said this:

Let one not trace back the past Or yearn for the future-yet-to-come. That which is past is left behind Unattained is the "yet-to-come." But that which is present he discerns — With insight as and when it comes. The Immovable — the-non-irritable. In that state should the wise one grow Today itself should one bestir Tomorrow death may come — who knows? For no bargain can we strike With Death who has his mighty hosts. But one who dwells thus ardently By day, by night, untiringly Him the Tranquil Sage has called The Ideal Lover of Solitude.

"And how, monks, does one trace back the past? He thinks: 'I was of such form in the past' and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I was of such feeling in the past' and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I was of such perception in the past' and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I was of such formations in the past' and brings delight to bear on them. He thinks: 'I was of such consciousness in the past' and brings delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one traces back the past.

"And how, monks, does one not trace back the past? He thinks: 'I was of such form in the past' but brings no delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I was of such feeling... of such perception... of such formations...'... He thinks: 'I was of such consciousness in the past' but brings no delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one does not trace back the past.

"And how, monks, does one yearn for the future? He thinks: 'I may have such form in the future' and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I may have such feeling... such perception... such formations...'... He thinks: 'I may have such consciousness in the future' and brings delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one yearns for the future.

"And how, monks, does one not yearn for the future? He thinks: 'I may have such form in the future' but brings no delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I may have such feeling... such perception... such formations...'... He thinks: 'I may have such consciousness in the future' but brings no delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one does not yearn for the future.

"And how is one drawn into present things? Herein, monks, an uninstructed ordinary man who takes no account of the Noble Ones, is unskilled in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, untrained in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, taking no account of the good men, unskilled in the Dhamma of the good men, untrained in the Dhamma of the good men, looks upon form as self, or self as possessed of form, or form as in self, or self as in form. He looks upon feeling as self, or self as possessed of feeling, or feeling as in self, or self as in feeling. He looks upon perception as self, or self as possessed of perception, or perception as in self, or self as in perception. He looks upon formations as self, or self as possessed of formations, or formations as in self, or self as in formations. He looks upon consciousness as self, or self as possessed of consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. That is how, monks, one is drawn into present things.

"And how, monks, is one not drawn into present things? Herein, monks, an instructed Noble disciple who takes into account the Noble Ones, skilled in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, trained in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, taking into account the good men, skilled in the Dhamma of the good men, trained in the Dhamma of the good men, does not look upon form as self, or self as possessed of form, or form as in self, or self as in form. He does not look upon feeling as self... He does not look upon perception as self... He does not look upon formations as self... He does not look upon consciousness as self, or self as possessed of consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. That is how, monks, one is not drawn into present things.

Let one not trace back the past Or yearn for the future-yet-to-come. That which is past is left behind Unattained is the "yet-to-come." But that which is present he discerns — With insight as and when it comes. The Immovable — the-non-irritable. In that state should the wise one grow Today itself should one bestir Tomorrow death may come — who knows? For no bargain can we strike With Death who has his mighty hosts. But one who dwells thus ardently By day, by night, untiringly Him the Tranquil Sage has called The Ideal Lover of Solitude.

So it was with reference to this that it was said: "Monks, I shall preach to you the summary and the exposition of the Ideal Lover of Solitude."

Thus spoke the Exalted One, Delighted, those monks rejoiced in what the Exalted One had said.

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